Read e-book online American Indians and World War II: toward a new era in PDF

By Alison R. Bernstein

ISBN-10: 0806123303

ISBN-13: 9780806123301

The effect of worldwide warfare II on Indian affairs used to be extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes below Eisenhower. concentrating on the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ international struggle II reports in conflict and at the domestic entrance.

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Demographers' reports on Indian population revealed that the Indian growth rate by 1940 exceeded that of the rest of the American population. 2 percent for the total population. The rate of Indian increase through excess of births over deaths was more than twice the rate of the general population. 1 million Indians on the eve of colonization. More recent demographic scholarship suggests a much higher number, close to 5 million Indians prior to Columbus. 30 While the Indian population was growing, the percentage of fullblooded Indians seemed to be decreasing.

There are no national statistics revealing the number of Indians who relocated to urban areas before 1945, but lack of educational opportunities coupled with strong tribal ties made Indians far less mobile than either rural whites or blacks. " 37 If land was the basis of Indian life, allotment and its consequences had clearly diminished the Indians' ability to utilize their lands effectively. 2 million acres of agricultural land to whites. In short, more than 25 percent of the usable Indian land (approximately 14 million acres) in 1940 was not being utilized by Indians, but by whites who obtained leases at low prices from inexperienced or struggling Indian landlords.

The highly assimilated Five Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma and the isolated Navajo in Arizona and New Mexico, for example, made up 30 percent of the total Indian population. But Indian affairs also encompassed the traditions of over two hundred identifiable tribes speaking over fifty-five languages. 29 More than a hundred tribes lived within these states alone. Demographers' reports on Indian population revealed that the Indian growth rate by 1940 exceeded that of the rest of the American population.

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American Indians and World War II: toward a new era in Indian affairs by Alison R. Bernstein


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