By T. Brent Gunnoe (auth.), Pedro J. Pérez (eds.)
Over the prior decade, a lot examine attempt has been dedicated to the layout and synthesis of latest reagents and catalysts which may effect carbon-hydrogen bond activation, almost always end result of the prospect that C−H activation might permit the conversion of inexpensive and ample alkanes into invaluable functionalized natural compounds.
Alkane C-H Activation through Single-Site steel Catalysis offers the present state of the art improvement within the catalytic structures for the catalytic trans-formations of alkanes below homogeneous stipulations. bankruptcy 1 deals a complete precis of the most discoveries discovered to this point. bankruptcy 2 experiences the so-called electrophilic activation, initiated through Shulpín within the overdue 60s, and the bottom for the Catalytica process. bankruptcy three examines the catalytic borylation of alkanes, found by way of Hartwig, while bankruptcy four presents an up to date imaginative and prescient of the alkane dehydrogenation response. bankruptcy five covers the oxygenation of C-H bonds, a box of large curiosity with bioinorganic im-plications, and eventually bankruptcy 6 offers the functionalization of alkane C-H bonds by means of carbene or nitrene insertion.
The background of C-H bond activation, and the present learn defined during this publication, spotlight the present examine and current the reader with an outlook of this box which remains to be explored by way of an more and more visionary and enthusiastic staff of natural, organometallic, organic and actual chemists.
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Additional info for Alkane C-H Activation by Single-Site Metal Catalysis
Coordination of methane by associative displacement of water was calculated to be the rate-determining step; the actual C–H activation (assumed to be oxidative addition) had a much lower barrier . In the absence of a direct experimental approach, researchers turned to indirect methods—specifically, examination of the microscopic reverse reaction, protonolysis of an (alkyl)Pt(II) complex. 5 from right to left) could be more conclusively distinguished, perhaps even by observation of an intermediate.
However, there is considerable evidence in other systems that invalidates the latter assumption, so this attempt at a direct answer does not necessarily hold up. Computational methods have been brought to bear on this question, but they are problematic. In aqueous media, the contributions of solvation and specific hydrogen bonding interactions will surely be very important, and it is not clear how reliable the methodology for handling them is likely to be. In an early study, Siegbahn and Crabtree examined the activation of methane by cis-PtCl2(H2O)2 by DFT, and found the lowest overall activation energy for a r-CAM-like route; the calculated transition state (Fig.
1 Ligand-Substituted Complexes As indicated earlier, there is a very large body of work on C–H activation by ligand-substituted Pt(II) complexes , but not so many examples of functionalization. Since C–H activation, the first step of the Shilov cycle, appears to 42 J. A. Labinger be rate-determining under most or all conditions, one should look first at the effect of ligands on that step. Early work by Shilov’s group included substitution of various anions for chloride; the rate of H/D exchange correlates fairly well inversely with their trans-directing power: CN- \ NO2- \ I- \ Br- \ Cl- \ F[16, 17].
Alkane C-H Activation by Single-Site Metal Catalysis by T. Brent Gunnoe (auth.), Pedro J. Pérez (eds.)